Category: Psychoanalysis

Wilhelm Reich: Die sexuelle Revolution. 1936

Wilhelm Reich (1897 – 1957) is an unusual psychoanalyst: He connects psychoanalysis with a Marxist analysis of society, and he revolutionizes psychoanalytic treatment by directly including the body. His writings inspired various forms of body-oriented psychotherapies. He is also much more explicit than many other psychoanalysts about working with the client’s sexuality. The following excerpt from his 1936 book “The Sexual Revolution” examines how the family structure translates the oppression of capitalist modern states (which are still authoritarian) into the repression of sexual impulses. Psychoanalysis studies these forms of repressions as “symptoms”, for instance in obsessive-compulsive behaviors. In Reich’s analysis,...

Jacques Lacan: The Neurotic’s Individual Myth. 1953

This paper originated from a lecture Lacan delivered in Paris in the early 1950s; the initial text was distributed in 1953. A modified French edition was done by Jacques-Alain Miller and with the approval of Lacan was published in the journal Ornicar? in 1979, and in the same year an English translation appeared in “Psychoanalytic Quarterly,” which is the basis for the following text. This is an early lecture, before Lacan’s official seminars started (Seminar 1 was given in 1954.) It demonstrates Lacan’s basic structural approach to the psyche, which he refined into topological models throughout his work. The current...

C.G. Jung: Die sieben Reden an die Toten. 1916

Einleitung Der ägyptische Gnostiker Basilides in Alexandria (117 – 138 AD) bezeichnete das Symbol des höchsten Urwesens mit “Abraxas” (griechisch Ἀβρασάξ, Ἀβράξας). Aus diesem Urwesen entstehen die fünf Urkräfte: Geist(Nous), Wort ( Logos), Vorsehung (Phronesis), Weisheit(Sophia), sowie Macht und sittliche Vollkommenheit, die inneren Frieden einschliesst. Basilides verarbeitete verschiedene christlich-jüdische, persische und neuplatonische Überlieferungen zu einem dualistischen Weltbild.Das frühe Christentum war stark gnostisch geprägt, gnostische Richtungen gab es auch im Judentum, und sogar der Islam hat seine Gnostiker (die Sufis). Die Gnostiker gehen davon aus, dass der Kern eines jeden Menschen ein “göttlicher Funke” ist. Der göttliche Funke ist unsterblich, er existiert außerhalb...

C. G. Jung: Psychological Types. 1921

(Translation by H. Godwyn Baynes, 1923) GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TYPES A. INTRODUCTION In the following pages I shall attempt a general description of the types, and my first concern must be with the two general types I have termed introverted and extraverted. But, in addition, I shall also try to give a certain characterization of those special types whose particularity is due to the fact that his most differentiated function plays the principal role in an individual’s adaptation or orientation to life. The former I would term general attitude types, since they are distinguished by the direction of general interest or...

Carl Jung: Quotes

There is a good documentary about Carl Jung: Matters of the Heart, 1983. And here is Jung in an interview, from 1957. “The psyche is the greatest of all cosmic wonders and the sine qua non of the world as an object. It is in the highest degree odd that Western man, with but very few and ever fewer exceptions, apparently pays so little regard to this fact….Swamped by the knowledge of external objects, the subject of all knowledge has been temporarily eclipsed to the point of seeming nonexistence.”   C. G. Jung, 1946, CW 8, par. 357. “Not nature but...

Carl Jung: Late Thoughts. 1962

From: Memories, Dreams, Reflections. By C. G. Jung Recorded And Edited By Aniela Jaffé.(abbreviated in the footnotes as AJ) This is the last chapter of the book, and represents Jungs final thoughts on some eternal questions about human nature. He died in 1961, and it was published in 1962. Late Thoughts ANY BIOGRAPHY of myself must, I think, take account of the following reflections. It is true that they may well strike others as highly theoretical, but making “theory” of this sort is as much a part of me, as vital a function of mine, as eating and drinking. What...

Michel de Certeau: Lacan – An Ethics of Speech (1983)

The Jesuit priest Michel de Certeau was a collaborator of Lacan and a director of one of the Lacanian Schools. He is also an anthropologist; in the following essay, he provides a perspective on Lacanian theory as an intimate outsider to the Lacanian movement. The following essay is quoted from the journal “Representations, No. 3 (Summer, 1983), pp. 21-39. Published by: University of California Press.”  It can also be found in [easyazon_link identifier=”0816614040″ locale=”US” tag=”mainacademicsite-20″]Heterologies: Discourse on the Other[/easyazon_link], 1986 by Michel De Certeau (Author), B. Massumi (Translator). Chapter 4, p. 47ff. (Numbers throughout the text refer to the footnotes at...

Viktor Frankl: The Will to Meaning (1962)

This is an extract from Part II of [easyazon_link identifier=”080701429X” locale=”US” tag=”mainacademicsite-20″]Man’s Search for Meaning[/easyazon_link], which is Viktor Frankl’s introduction to logotherapy. The central concept of logotherapy is meaning and the search for it. This will give us the strength to surmount even the most difficult occurrences in life. Viktor Frankl knows what he is talking about: he had to endure three years in a Nazi concentration camp. The Search for Meaning Man’s search for meaning is a primary force in his life and not a “secondary rationalization” of instinctual drives. This meaning is unique and specific in that it must...

Lacan: The Mirror Stage

The idea of the “mirror stage” is an important early component in Lacan’s reinterpretation of the work of Freud. Drawing on work in physiology and animal psychology, Lacan proposes that human infants pass through a stage in which an external image of the body (reflected in a mirror, or represented to the infant through the mother or primary caregiver) produces a psychic response that gives rise to the mental representation of an “I”. The infant identifies with the image, which serves as a gestalt of the infant’s emerging perceptions of selfhood, but because the image of a unified body does...

Erich Neumann: Depth Psychology and a New Ethic.

Erich Neumann (1905-1960) was born in Berlin. He received a Ph.D. in Philosophy from the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg in 1927 and then continued to study medicine at the University of Berlin. He met C.G. Jung first in 1933, at a seminar Jung was conducting in Berlin. Jung was fifty-seven years old and already famous for his own brand of psychotherapy. The two men started a correspondence that would continue until Neumann’s death in 1960. A lifelong Zionist, Neumann fled Nazi Germany with his family and settled in Tel Aviv in 1934, where he would become the founding father of analytical psychology...

Lacan’s Life

The following chronology of Lacan’s life and work is based on a list of dates, publications, and events, assembled by the authors of Lacan.com. There is also an excellent overview of his life and his work at the Stanford Encyclopedia for Philosophy. 1901  —  Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan is born in Paris, April 13, to a family of solid Catholic tradition. He is educated at the Collège Stanislas, a Jesuit school. He has a sister, Magdeleine-Marie and a younger brother Marc-Marie, who later becomes a Benedictine at the abbey of Hautecombe. His brother’s name appears before those of his parents in his thesis dedication....

Freud’s View of Religion

This paper was written in 1998/1999, as part of my research into the relationship between psychoanalysis and religion. 1. An Outline of Freud’s Critique of Religion Freud’s notion of the Oedipal conflict attempts to conceptualize the triangulation between the child’s desire for the mother (the real origin for the child) and the intervening father who also has a libidinal investment in the mother and thus becomes the figure which represents conflict and prohibition for the child. This conflict exemplifies a basic structure: the prohibition that creates the limit of the enjoyment of the mother represents the “reality principle”; it enlists reason...

Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961)

Carl Jung was a Swiss psychoanalyst who created a version of psychoanalysis that is still very popular today. His system blends to some degree with New Age thinking and resonates with a popular cultural trend that is fascinated by mythology, dreams, storytelling, and archetypes.

Erik Erikson

The following summary is based on: McLeod, S. A. (2008). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html Introduction Erikson’s ideas were greatly influenced by Freud, going along with Freud’s ideas about the structure and topography of personality. Different from Freud, who focused on the unconscious, Erikson addressed the development of the ego in psycho-social stages. He emphasized the role of culture and society and the conflicts that take place within the ego itself, whereas Freud emphasizes more the internal conflicts between unconscious and superego. According to Erikson, the ego develops as it successfully resolves crises that are distinctly social in nature. These involve establishing a sense...

Transference in Freud and Lacan

What is “transference”? “Transference” is a psychoanalytic term that refers to something that is very common in daily life: People displace unresolved conflicts, dependencies, and aggressions onto others (e.g. substituting a lover, spouse, etc. for one’s parent) for reasons that are not easily understandable. This operation occurs commonly in psychotherapy when a client transfers feelings that were previously directed to someone else to the therapist. The client sees in her therapist the return of some important figure from her childhood or past and consequently transfers on to him feelings and reactions from the past. Early childhood relationships, memories, and emotions,...

Press Conference by Jacques Lacan in Rome, 29 October 1974.

Press Conference by Doctor Jacques Lacan at the French Cultural Center, Rome, 29 October 1974.Published in the Lettres de l’École freudienne, 1975, n° 16, pp. 6-26.  during which I have taught in a way that has carved out, it might be said, my positions. I [1] J. Lacan – I already took up my positions in psychoanalysis, in 1953 more precisely. There was a first Congress in October, in Rome. I think, (I didn’t ask), I imagine a sort of anniversary party was being planned for me: it’s quite a long time 21 years; the 21 years had already started...

Freud: Splitting of the Ego in the Process of Defense. 1938

This short essay was written in January 1938 and published after Freud’s death in 1939. He used the idea of ego-splitting in earlier texts, for instance in “Fetishism” (1927), or as an explanation for psychotic mechanisms, in his early papers on psychosis. In the paper, Freud describes a solution found by the child, to simultaneously satisfy his instincts and respect reality. Through the mechanism of splitting, the child “takes over the fear of that danger as a pathological symptom and tries subsequently to divest himself of the fear.” Anxiety gets displaced onto a phobia, and the satisfaction of the sexual drive continues through the...

Theology in Freud and Lacan

 A Short Summary of the Arguments. In the struggle to find what sustains the psychological reality of religious belief as well as its deep rootedness, psychoanalysis loses its initial hostility against the phenomenon. Religion becomes a fascinating field to study from the psychoanalytic point of view. The development of the psychoanalytic interpretation of religion from Freud to Lacan shows how psychoanalytic theory itself was transformed through this task. Analysis of the religious phenomenon leads to the core of Lacanian theory, which is the constitutive function of the signifier in relation to the subject. Freud’s psychoanalytic study of Moses and Monotheism is the...

Lacanian Graph of Desire

Lacan developed his graph of desire in four stages – you find them below. The graphs and the theory behind it can be found in the 1960 essay “The Subversion of the Subject and the Dialectic of Desire in the Freudian Unconscious.” In: Jacques Lacan, Ecrits, trans. Bruce Fink (New York: W.W.Norton &Company, 2006), p. 435.

Freud: Forgetting of Foreign Words. 1901.

From: Sigmund Freud (1901): Psychopathology of Everyday Life. Translation by A. A. Brill (1914) Chapter 2 The ordinary vocabulary of our own language seems to be protected against forgetting within the limits of normal function, but it is quite different with words from a foreign language. The tendency to forget such words extends to all parts of speech. In fact, depending on our own general state and the degree of fatigue, the first manifestation of functional disturbance evinces itself in the irregularity of our control over foreign vocabulary. In a series of cases this forgetting follows the same mechanism as...