Tagged: German Idealism

Friedrich Schelling: System of Transcendental Philosophy. 1800

About Schelling “Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775–1854) is, along with Fichte and Hegel, one of the three most influential thinkers in the tradition of ‘German Idealism’. Since he changed his conception of philosophy often, it is hard to attribute a  clear philosophical conception to him. Schelling was a rigorous logical thinker, but in the era during which he was writing, there was so much change in philosophy that a stable, fixed point of view was impossible. Schelling’s continuing importance today is based on three aspects of his work. Schelling’s Naturphilosophie. His empirical claims are largely indefensible, but his approach...

Hegel Quotes

The website Marxists.org has an extensively researched collection of Hegel texts. The following quotes from Hegel are linked to these texts, so you can read each quote in the context in which it was written, which is very helpful.   When philosophy paints its grey in grey, one form of life has become old, and by means of grey it cannot be rejuvenated, but only known. The owl of Minerva, takes its flight only when the shades of night are gathering. Preface to The Philosophy of Right (1821) The spirit of a nation is reflected in its history, its religion, and the degree of...

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Along with J. G. Fichte and F. W. J. von Schelling, Hegel  (1770-1831) belongs to the period of “German idealism” in the decades following Kant. The most systematic of the post-Kantian idealists, Hegel attempted, throughout his published writings as well as in his lectures, to elaborate a comprehensive and systematic ontology from a “logical” starting point. He developed a dialectical method, which can be seen as an extended version of logic. He is perhaps most well-known for his teleological account of history, an account which was later taken over by Marx and “inverted” into a materialist theory of an historical development...

Immanuel Kant – Biography

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) is the thinker with whom modern philosophy begins. It is his philosophical project to synthesize rationalism and empiricism by searching for a deeper basis for the connection between mind and reality. The outcome is “transcendental philosophy.” Kant’s thinking is analytical, and it is often juxtaposed to Hegel’s synthetic dialectical method. He still exerts enormous influence in the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy. Kant explicates his system in three so-called “Critiques”: the Critique of Pure Reason (1781, 1787), the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), and the Critique of the Power of Judgment (1790).  Kant is an...

Phänomenologie des Geistes, Kapitel VIII: Das absolute Wissen

Das absolute Wissen ist das lezte Kapitel in Hegels Buch Phänomenologie des Geistes,  welches 1807 veröffentlicht wurde. “Der Geist der offenbaren Religion hat sein Bewußtsein als solches noch nicht überwunden, oder, was dasselbe ist, sein wirkliches Selbstbewußtsein ist nicht der Gegenstand seines Bewußtseins; er selbst überhaupt und die in ihm sich unterscheidenden Momente fallen in das Vorstellen und in die Form der Gegenständlichkeit. Der Inhalt des Vorstellens ist der absolute Geist; und es ist allein noch um das Aufheben dieser bloßen Form zu tun, oder vielmehr weil sie dem Bewußtsein als solchem angehört, muß ihre Wahrheit schon in den Gestaltungen desselben sich ergeben haben. –...

Vorrede zur Phänomenologie des Geistes

Hier ist die deutsche  Vorrede zur Phänomenologie des Geistes, Hegel’s Hauptwerk von 1807.  “Eine Erklärung, wie sie einer Schrift in einer Vorrede nach der Gewohnheit vorausgeschickt wird – über den Zweck, den der Verfasser sich in ihr vorgesetzt, sowie über die Veranlassungen und das Verhältnis, worin er sie zu andern frühern oder gleichzeitigen Behandlungen desselben Gegenstandes zu stehen glaubt – scheint bei einer philosophischen Schrift nicht nur überflüssig, sondern um der Natur der Sache willen sogar unpassend und zweckwidrig zu sein. Denn wie und was von Philosophie in einer Vorrede zu sagen schicklich wäre – etwa eine historische Angabe der Tendenz und...

Hegel: Absolute Knowledge

Chapter VIII of the Phenomenology of the Spirit. (1) 788. THE Spirit manifested in revealed religion has not as yet surmounted its attitude of consciousness as such; or, what is the same thing, its actual self-consciousness is not at this stage the object it is aware of. Spirit as a whole and the moments distinguished in it fall within the sphere of figurative thinking, and within the form of objectivity. The content of this figurative thought is Absolute Spirit. All that remains to be done now is to cancel and transcend this bare form; or better, because the form appertains to consciousness...