Monthly Archive: January 2015

What is characteristic about Human Rights?

Human rights are universal: all human beings have these rights, for no other reason than their humanity and the values attached to humanity; this means that human rights precede and trump considerations of national sovereignty and that national sovereignty, therefore, does not provide a means to escape human rights obligations. They are also moral claims, and therefore they are grounded in morality, not just law. They are necessary for the protection and realization of certain fundamental, basic and universal human values and interests. They are instrumental principles in the sense that we don’t want them for their own sake; they are means for the creation of better life quality and not just goals in themselves.

Visit at the De Young Museum, Jan 2015

I really like the De Young Museum in San Francisco; it is worth a visit every year. The museum’s architecture is just as interesting as the collections themselves. It is...

What does it mean to have rights?

When thinking about what it means to have a right it is sometimes useful to replace the word “right” with another word that expresses something similar. Let’s review some of these...

Finite and Infinite Games

A game is defined by its rules. In a finite game, the rules are designed for the purpose to have a winner, therefore to end the game. In an infinite game, the purpose is to play the game, therefore continue to play.
You know what the game is by knowing the  rules. Rules in a finite game are the terms  by which the players agree who has won. Rules are valid because the players agree to them. There is no rule that require us to obey the rules. (Saul Kripke on Wittgenstein.)
In a finite game, the players have to agree who won. Since there is a clear end, there must also be a clear beginning. The boundaries for finite games are externally defined.
Players have to play freely, or else it is not a game. Whoever must play, cannot play. This is the only commonality between finite and infinite games.
Infinite games have no boundaries: time is created within the game itself. One cannot say how long an infinite game has been played because it generates its own time.