Category: Timelines

Timeline of the life and work of Karl Marx

The following timeline is adapted from Marxists.org, which is an excellent source for Marx and Marxism. (The links below will lead to texts at Marxists.org.)  Marxists.org also has a timeline of the works of Marx and Engels. There is also a  good timeline for Karl Marx at the Wikipedia. May 5, 1818 A son Karl is born to barrister Heinrich Marx and his wife, Henriette, in Trier November 28, 1820 A son Frederick is born to textile manufacturer Friedrich Engels and his wife, Elisabeth, in Barmen July 27-29, 1830 Revolution in France September Revolution in Belgium 1830-31 Uprisings in Poland October 1830 Karl...

Origins of Life: Timeline, and Research

The problem of the origin of life is still unsolved, and we face many open questions. The research into the origins is one of the fascinating stories in recent history, and we still have a lot to discover. Below you will find first a timeline of the earliest events, then a timeline of the scientific progress. The source for it is Prof. Hazen’s textbook for the Course “Origins of Life,” from the Teaching Company. At the bottom of the page there is a video lecture where Prof. Hazen explains the journey. Timeline of Events in Life’s Origins 4.55 billion years...

Historical Timeline for Africa

The following historical timeline for Africa is adapted from: The African Experience. From “Lucy” to Mandela. By: Kenneth P. Vickery. Teaching Company, 2007. c. 4–3 million B.C Emergence of Australopithecus, possibly the first in the hominid line of evolution, culminating in modern humans in East/Southern Africa. c. 1.5 million B.C Emergence of Homo erectus in Africa, definitely a human ancestor. c. 100,000 B.C Emergence of Homo sapiens, “wise human,” in Africa. c. 40,000 B.C Emergence of Homo sapiens sapiens, fully modern humans, in Africa. c. 5000 B.C. to A.D. 1000 (depending on region) Closing of Late Stone Age, opening of...

The Roots of Religion

Thanks to modern science, we now know more about religious history than ever: Scientific archaeology began in the 18th century, and since then excavators have been discovering and interpreting evidence, ranging from tiny goddess figurines carved from mammoth ivory to entire sacred landscapes, such as at the Giza plateau in Egypt. The archeological evidence enhances and corrects our knowledge derived from books and other preserved objects. Ancient graves, statues, temples, stones, sacrificial offerings, or places of initiation – they all express the universal human search for spiritual power and understanding. Archaeology provides evidence that is very different from historical writings like the Bible or...

Philosophy Timeline

The following list is a work in progress, and includes only Western thinkers. The Project Gutenberg text collection also has a good timeline of Eastern philosophy. CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHERS  600-500 BCE Thales of Miletus (c. 624 – 546 BCE). Of the Milesian school. Believed that all was made of water. Anaximander of Miletus (c. 610 – 546 BCE). Of the Milesian school. Famous for the concept of Apeiron, or “the boundless”. Anaximenes of Miletus (c. 585 – 525 BCE). Of the Milesian school. Believed that all was made of air. Pythagoras of Samos (c. 580 – c. 500 BCE). Of the...

Western Mysticism – A Timeline

This page covers people and movements in the tradition of Western mysticism, from the early Greek period to about 1700. It is arranged chronologically, and it’s purpose is to give a short overview of Western mysticism with links to other websites. As much as possible, I try to link to the etexts for the mystical writings of these authors. The original version of this page was created a while ago by Bruce B. Janz from the University of Central Florida “for the free use of scholars and students of mysticism.” I could not find his original version on the Internet anymore, but the credit for...

Psychology: 19th Century Timeline

  1801  Pinel writes text on Moral Therapy 1804  Immanuel Kant dies 1804  Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of France 1807  Hegel completes The Phenomenology of Spirit 1808  Reil coins term “psychiatry” 1810  Gall publishes the first volume of Anatomie et Physiologie du Systèm Nerveux 1811  Sir Charles Bell reports to associates at a dinner party the anatomical separation of sensory and motor function of spinal cord 1815  Napoleon surrenders at Waterloo; the Peace of Paris ends the Napoleonic Wars; the Congress of Vienna firms up the old European monarchies 1816  Johann Friedrich Herbart publishes Lehrbuch zur Psychologie. Herbart’s text introduces the concept of repression. 1819  Schopenhauer writes “The World as Will and Idea.” 1822  Francis Magendie publishes an article which postulates the separation...

History of Political Thought – Timeline

Timelines help us to develop a relational view of events, authors, and ideas. It’s especially helpful for political thought. here are some of the important markers. The Ancient World 551 BCE Confucius (551-479 BCE) – Chinese philosopher and educator, ( See the Analects of Confucius) 495 BCE Pericles (495-429) – Athenian statesman and advocate of democracy 469 Socrates (469-384) – Athenian philosopher who is credited with laying the foundations of western philosophy; sentenced to death in Athens for heresy. 450 The Twelve Tables – the first recorded statement of Roman Law 431 The Peloponnesian War (431-404) between Athens and Sparta 428 Plato (428-347) Athenian philosopher, recorder of Socratic dialogue and critic of democracy 427 The...

Technological Discoveries in Modern Times

History and the change in human civilization are driven by scientific and technological innovations. Below is a timeline of some breakthroughs in the last 500 years; the list could be a lot longer, and the pace of innovation has increased dramatically in recent years. One of the reasons for this acceleration is synergy: we can use innovations like computers to invent even smarter things and revolutionize every area of life. Technological progress does not translate into real progress for humanity. Mid-13th Century: Gunpowder. 1453 Gutenberg invents the Printing Press. 1769 Steam engine, around 1769. This drives the industrial revolution. 1821...

Renaissance

The Renaissance is a cultural movement that starts from Italy in the mid-14th century and spreads through Europe. It brings the Medieval time period to an end, and is marked by a changing consciousness about politics, the world, and art. It’s the time of da Vinci, Michelangelo, Giotto, Titian, Raphael, Donatello, or Brunelleshi. Here is a timeline of some of the main events that characterize the period: Timeline (Quoted from Sparknotes ) April 6, 1341: Francesco Petrarch is Crowned Poet Laureate Many historians cite this date as the beginning of the Renaissance. 1397: Giovanni de Medici Moves to Florence Giovanni...

Early History of Civilization

I wanted to know more about the human prehistory; where we come from and what we really know about our own origins.The timeline below gives you a rough overview; it is a fascinating story. One way to sequence human prehistory is by the type of tools that were in use. Early on, researchers came up with a three stage system of stone, bronze, and iron that allowed them to sequence the origins of human civilization. This system, however, does not work for every geographic area. The Stone age period comprises more than a million years, and gets divided into an...

Discoveries leading to the Standard Model

The following timeline of discoveries the led to the Standard Model is quoted from Fermilab’s website. “The current theoretical framework that describes elementary particles and their forces, known as the Standard Model, is based on experiments that started in 1897 with the discovery of the electron. Today, we know that there are six leptons, six quarks and four force carriers. The list below gives the dates of important discoveries, the names of scientists and laboratories involved, and Nobel Prizes awarded for the discoveries. Quarks: up (u) down (d) 1964 Gell-Mann and, independently, Zweig introduce the idea of quarks, the building...

Global History – Timeline

Overview by Period and Region Prehistoric Landmarks c. 2−2.5 million……………..More humanlike species with larger brain size years ago in eastern Africa. 120,000 years ago ………….Arrival of Homo sapiens sapiens; later displacement of Neanderthals and other species across Asia and Europe from initial center in Africa. 25,000 BCE…………………..Passage of people to the Americas via land link from Asia. 8000−5000 BCE ……………Further improvements in tool making; first development of agriculture; great expansion in human population. 4000−3500 BCE ……………Early use of bronze and copper tools. 1500 BCE……………………..Early use of iron tools and weapons. River Valley Civilizations 3500−2600 BCE ……………Sumerian kingdom, development of cuneiform...

Chinese Dynasties

I learned almost nothing about Chinese history when I went to school in Germany. In our times, it is really important to learn global history, and not just the history of our own countries or continents. The following short overview of Chinese dynasties is a frame for understanding at least the outline of Chinese history. Here are the dynasties in chronological order: Zhou, Qin, Han, Tang, Song, Lio, Jin, Yuan, Ming, Qing. Zhou (770-240BC) is an era of constant warfare and power struggles. Confucius and Lao-tzu (creator of Daoism) are born during this period. Their writings have an enormous impact...