Featured Challenges of the Anthropocene

Social Sciences

The Execution of Damiens

The use of torture as a form of punishment was commonplace in European societies into the early 19th century. Today, we are outraged by mass killings, genocide, and ISIS beheadings, but extreme violence has always been there; it runs deep...

/ February 23, 2017

Historical Timeline for Africa

The following historical timeline for Africa is adapted from: The African Experience. From “Lucy” to Mandela. By: Kenneth P. Vickery. Teaching Company, 2007. c. 4–3 million B.C Emergence of Australopithecus, possibly the first in the hominid line of evolution, culminating...

/ June 19, 2016

The Roots of Religion

Thanks to modern science, we now know more about religious history than ever: Scientific archaeology began in the 18th century, and since then excavators have been discovering and interpreting evidence, ranging from tiny goddess figurines carved from mammoth ivory to entire...

/ January 23, 2016

Rosenhan: On Being Sane In Insane Places

How do we know what constitutes “normality” or mental illness? Conventional wisdom suggests that specially trained professionals have the ability to make reasonably accurate diagnoses. In the research described below, however, David Rosenhan provides evidence to challenge this assumption. What...

/ January 21, 2016

Psychology: 19th Century Timeline

  1801  Pinel writes text on Moral Therapy 1804  Immanuel Kant dies 1804  Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of France 1807  Hegel completes The Phenomenology of Spirit 1808  Reil coins term “psychiatry” 1810  Gall publishes the first volume of Anatomie et Physiologie du Systèm Nerveux 1811  Sir Charles Bell reports to associates at a...

/ August 1, 2015

Gestalt Psychology

WHAT IS GESTALT THEORY? Gestalt psychology (sometimes also “gestaltism”) is a theory of mind created by the Berlin School of Experimental Psychology in the first decades of the 20th century. The German word “Gestalt” means shape, or form. Gestalt psychology...

/ July 26, 2015

Max Wertheimer: What is Gestalt Theory? (1924) 

Wertheimer tried to answer this question in a lecture given before the Kant Society in Berlin, on December 7, 1924. It was first published in German in 1925: “Über Gestalttheorie.” The translation is by Willis Ellis, and was published in his “Source Book of Gestalt Psychology.” New...

/ July 13, 2015