Psychology: 19th Century Timeline

Europe in 1815, after Napoleon’s defeat.
Europe in 1815, after Napoleon’s defeat.

Europe in 1815, after Napoleon’s defeat.


1801  Pinel writes text on Moral Therapy
1804  Immanuel Kant dies
1804  Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of France
1807  Hegel completes The Phenomenology of Spirit
1808  Reil coins term “psychiatry”
1810  Gall publishes the first volume of Anatomie et Physiologie du Systèm Nerveux
1811  Sir Charles Bell reports to associates at a dinner party the anatomical separation of sensory and motor function of spinal cord
1815  Napoleon surrenders at Waterloo; the Peace of Paris ends the Napoleonic Wars; the Congress of Vienna firms up the old European monarchies
1816  Johann Friedrich Herbart publishes Lehrbuch zur Psychologie. Herbart’s text introduces the concept of repression.
1819  Schopenhauer writes “The World as Will and Idea.”
1822  Francis Magendie publishes an article which postulates the separation of sensory and motor function of the spinal cord.
1831  Goethe completes Faust — he dies the following year
1834 Johannes Müller publishes Handbüch des Physiologie des Menschen
1834  The German Customs Union – a major step towards German unification
1835  Colt invents the revolver.
1842  Auguste Comte completes his six-volume Course in Positive Philosophy
1843  Kierkegaard publishes Either/Or and Fear and Trembling
1845 Morton uses ether as an anesthetic
1845 The Irish famine — over one million die and another million leave Ireland
1847 Marx and Engels publish The Communist Manifesto
1848 Haucock performs first appendix operation
1855 Herbert Spencer publishes the two volumes of the Principles of Psychology.. Alexander Bain publishes The Senses and the Intellect
1856 Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz publishes the first volume of the “Handbuch der physiologischen Optik.”
1859 Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of the Species. Alexander Bain publishes “The Emotions and the Will.”
1860 Gustav Fechner publishes The Elements of Psychophysics
1861 Paul Broca shows that the loss of speech in one individual is due to a lesion in third convolution of the left frontal lobe.
1861  Italy is united under Victor Emmanuel II for the first time since the Roman Empire.
1861 The abolition of serfdom in Russia frees 40 million serfs
1862-1865  The American Civil War frees 4 million slaves — over 600,000 soldiers die.
1863 Wilhelm Wundt publishes Lectures on  Human and Animal Psycholog I. M. Sechenov publishes a monograph Reflexes of the Brain, in which he attempted to analyze the higher order functions in terms of the reflex schema.
1864 Louis Pasteur invents “pasteurization”
1865  Mendel discovers the laws of genetics
1867  Lister invents antiseptic surgery
1869 Francis Galton publishes Hereditary Genius and uses the normal distribution for purposes of classification. Von Hartmann writes Philosophy of the Unconscious.
1870  G. Fritsch and E. Hitzig realize the first direct electric stimulation of the brain
1870  The Dogma of Papal Infallibility announced.
1870 – 1871  The Franco-Prussian War.
1871  Charles Darwin publishes The Descent of Man.
1871 Germany finally united under Prussian leadership:  “The Second Reich.”
1873  Wundt publishes Principles of Physiological Psychology.
1874  Franz Brentano publishes Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint.
1876  Alexander Bain establishes Mind, the first journal devoted to psychological research
1879  Wundt establishes the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany. 1879 Lightner Witmer uses the term clinical psychology for the first time
1882 Charcot opens clinic at Salpetriere.
1882 Christine Ladd Franklin completes the doctoral program in mathematics at Johns Hopkins — no degree granted due to prohibition against granting doctorates to women!
1883  Francis Galton publishes Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development.
Wundt establishes the journal Philosophische Studien to publish the results of his laboratory research. Kraepelin publishes list of disorders
1883 Nietzsche publishes Thus Spake Zarathustra.
1884 William James publishes What  is an Emotion?
1885  Hermann Ebbinghaus writes On Memory.
1885-6  Freud studies hypnotism under Charcot
1886 Louis Pasteur cures rabies.
1889  William James publishes The Principles of Psychology.
1890  Ehrenfels writes About the Qualities of the Gestalt.
1892  The American Psychological Association is founded with 42 members.
1892  Edward Titchener introduces his version of Wundt’s structuralism to America.
1893  Oswald Külpe publishes Outline of Psychology.
1894  John Dewey publishes The Ego as Cause.
1894  Margaret Floy Washburn becomes the first woman to receive a PhD in psychology;  her dissertation was supervised by Titchener.
1895 Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud publish Studies in Hysteria
Gustave Le Bon publishes Psychologie des Foules.
1896  Dewey publishes in the Psychological Review his famous article The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology.
Lightner Witmer establishes at the University of Pennsylvania a clinic of psychology, the first psychological clinic in America and perhaps in the world.
1897  Wundt publishes Outlines of Psychology.
1898  Titchener publishes The Postulates of a Structural Psychology.
1898  E. L. Thorndike publishes Animal Intelligence