Tagged: French Philosophy

Emmanuel Levinas (1906-1995)

Emmanuel Levinas is one of the most interesting European thinkers in the 20th Century. He is Jewish and grew up in Russia, studies philosophy with Husserl and Heidegger in Freiburg, fights with the French Army against the Germans, looses his family to the Holocaust, and is captured by the Nazis, but survives. After the war, he eventually becomes a professor at the Université de Paris Nanterre. He writes many books in his later life, and teaches at the Sorbonne as well. He integrates phenomenology, ethics, metaphyscis, and theology in a unique way, but it takes energy to understand him. He is also trying to re-think...

Gilles Deleuze: Immanence – A Life

Deleuze was very sick in his final years. The last essay he published is very short; it is an extraordinary text. “Immanence: A Life” was published in 1995, and he took his own life on November 4, 1995.  The concept of a “plane of immanence” is borrowed from Spinoza, who used it to describe the world as an attribute to the one substance, God. I like the concept of a transcendental field which is prior to consciousness, and consciousness “becomes a fact only when a subject is produced at the same time as its object, both being outside the field...