Tagged: Hegel

Hegelian Concepts

Source: Hegel for Beginners, by Llyod Spencer and Andrzej Krauze, Published by Icon Books. In 1808, Hegel still talked of constructing some sort of bridge between traditional logic set out in classical form by Aristotle and his own. Aristotlean logic had been the standard for 2,000 years. Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) perfected a form of deductive argument called the syllogism. “Classical reasoning assumes the principle of logical identity: A = A or A is not non-A”. Why did Hegel need a different logic? Perhaps you may already have seen the answer to this in Hegel’s Phenomenology. Hegel usually...

Hegel: Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences. 1830.

Part One: Introduction §1 Philosophy misses an advantage enjoyed by the other sciences. It cannot like them rest the existence of its objects on the natural admissions of consciousness, nor can it assume that its method of cognition, either for starting or for continuing, is one already accepted. The objects of philosophy, it is true, are upon the whole the same as those of religion. In both the object is Truth, in that supreme sense in which God and God only is the Truth. Both in like manner go on to treat of the finite worlds of Nature and the...

Hegel Glossary

It is extremely useful to have access to a guide to Hegel’s philosophical terminology. The glossary below is drawn from various  sources. (Inwood: A Hegel Dictionary, R. Solomon, In the Spirit of Hegel, “Notes to the Glossary” in Hegel’s “The Encyclopaedia Logic.”) ABSOLUTE adj., n. (absolut, das Absolute). Complete, self-contained, all-encompassing. Per Inwood, the Absolute ‘is not something underlying the phenomenal world, but the conceptual system embedded in it’. ABSTRACT (abstrakt). One-sided, empty, devoid of content. Opposed to: concrete. For Hegel, a particular, as well as a universal, may be ‘abstract’, meaning (per Inwood) cut off from thought or other...

Hegel: Phänomenologie des Geistes. (1807)

Sektion 4, A und B. IV. Die Wahrheit der Gewißheit seiner selbst In den bisherigen Weisen der Gewißheit ist dem Bewußtsein das Wahre etwas anderes als es selbst. Der Begriff dieses Wahren verschwindet aber in der Erfahrung von ihm; wie der Gegenstand unmittelbar an sich war, das Seiende der sinnlichen Gewißheit, das konkrete Ding der Wahrnehmung, die Kraft des Verstandes, so erweist er sich vielmehr nicht in Wahrheit zu sein, sondern diesAn-sich ergibt sich als eine Weise, wie er nur für ein Anderes ist; der Begriff von ihm hebt sich an dem wirklichen Gegenstande auf, oder die erste unmittelbare Vorstellung in der Erfahrung,...

Hegel Quotes

The website Marxists.org has an extensively researched collection of Hegel texts. The following quotes from Hegel are linked to these texts, so you can read each quote in the context in which it was written, which is very helpful.   When philosophy paints its grey in grey, one form of life has become old, and by means of grey it cannot be rejuvenated, but only known. The owl of Minerva, takes its flight only when the shades of night are gathering. Preface to The Philosophy of Right (1821) The spirit of a nation is reflected in its history, its religion, and the degree of...

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Along with J. G. Fichte and F. W. J. von Schelling, Hegel  (1770-1831) belongs to the period of “German idealism” in the decades following Kant. The most systematic of the post-Kantian idealists, Hegel attempted, throughout his published writings as well as in his lectures, to elaborate a comprehensive and systematic ontology from a “logical” starting point. He developed a dialectical method, which can be seen as an extended version of logic. He is perhaps most well-known for his teleological account of history, an account which was later taken over by Marx and “inverted” into a materialist theory of an historical development...

Hegel’s Grand Synthesis: A Study of Being, Thought, and History.

The following quote is from: Daniel Berthold-Bond, Hegel’s Grand Synthesis: A Study of Being, Thought, and History. New York: Harper, 1993, pp. 81-91. The Dialectical Principle Probably more has been written about Hegel’s theory of dialectic than any other aspect of his philosophy. It has been ridiculed as a “primitive schematization system,” [49] and praised as that which allows Hegel to “describe as few others have done the paradoxes, the problems, and the glories of spiritual life.” [50] I am not going to attempt a systematic or thorough analysis of Hegel’s theory of dialectic, but wish only to show how...

Phänomenologie des Geistes, Kapitel VIII: Das absolute Wissen

Das absolute Wissen ist das lezte Kapitel in Hegels Buch Phänomenologie des Geistes,  welches 1807 veröffentlicht wurde. “Der Geist der offenbaren Religion hat sein Bewußtsein als solches noch nicht überwunden, oder, was dasselbe ist, sein wirkliches Selbstbewußtsein ist nicht der Gegenstand seines Bewußtseins; er selbst überhaupt und die in ihm sich unterscheidenden Momente fallen in das Vorstellen und in die Form der Gegenständlichkeit. Der Inhalt des Vorstellens ist der absolute Geist; und es ist allein noch um das Aufheben dieser bloßen Form zu tun, oder vielmehr weil sie dem Bewußtsein als solchem angehört, muß ihre Wahrheit schon in den Gestaltungen desselben sich ergeben haben. –...

Vorrede zur Phänomenologie des Geistes

Hier ist die deutsche  Vorrede zur Phänomenologie des Geistes, Hegel’s Hauptwerk von 1807.  “Eine Erklärung, wie sie einer Schrift in einer Vorrede nach der Gewohnheit vorausgeschickt wird – über den Zweck, den der Verfasser sich in ihr vorgesetzt, sowie über die Veranlassungen und das Verhältnis, worin er sie zu andern frühern oder gleichzeitigen Behandlungen desselben Gegenstandes zu stehen glaubt – scheint bei einer philosophischen Schrift nicht nur überflüssig, sondern um der Natur der Sache willen sogar unpassend und zweckwidrig zu sein. Denn wie und was von Philosophie in einer Vorrede zu sagen schicklich wäre – etwa eine historische Angabe der Tendenz und...

Hegel: Absolute Knowledge

Chapter VIII of the Phenomenology of the Spirit. (1) 788. THE Spirit manifested in revealed religion has not as yet surmounted its attitude of consciousness as such; or, what is the same thing, its actual self-consciousness is not at this stage the object it is aware of. Spirit as a whole and the moments distinguished in it fall within the sphere of figurative thinking, and within the form of objectivity. The content of this figurative thought is Absolute Spirit. All that remains to be done now is to cancel and transcend this bare form; or better, because the form appertains to consciousness...

Preface to the Phenomenology of the Spirit

The Phenomenology of the Spirit (German: Phänomenologie des Geistes) was published in 1807, and it is one of G.W.F. Hegel‘s most important philosophical works, and a very influential book in the philosophical tradition. You can also find the German text on this website. PREFACE: ON SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE 1. In the case of a philosophical work it seems not only superfluous, but, in view of the nature of philosophy, even inappropriate and misleading to begin, as writers usually do in a preface, by explaining the end the author had in mind, the circumstances which gave rise to the work, and the relation in...